[1]魏 琛,倪盛俭.词汇语义学的根本问题及其回答: 经典词汇语义学视角[J].浙江外国语学院学报,2020,(01):47-60.
 WEI Chen,NI Shengjian.Fundamental Issues in Lexical Semantics and Their Answers: Classic Lexical Semantics Approach[J].,2020,(01):47-60.
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词汇语义学的根本问题及其回答: 经典词汇语义学视角(/HTML)
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《浙江外国语学院学报》[ISSN:/CN:]

卷:
期数:
2020年01期
页码:
47-60
栏目:
语言学及应用语言学
出版日期:
2020-06-20

文章信息/Info

Title:
Fundamental Issues in Lexical Semantics and Their Answers: Classic Lexical Semantics Approach
作者:
魏 琛12倪盛俭3
(1.武夷学院 人文与教师教育学院,福建 武夷山 354300;2.华东师范大学 外语学院,上海 200241; 3.贵州财经大学 文法学院,贵州 贵阳 550025)
Author(s):
WEI Chen12 NI Shengjian3
(1.College of Humanities and Teachers’ Education, Wuyi University, Wuyishan 354300, China; 2.School of Foreign Languages, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China; 3.School of Humanities and Law, Guizhou University of Finance and Economics, Guiyang 550025, China)
关键词:
词汇语义学的根本问题历史语文语义学结构主义语义学生成主义语义学融合模型
Keywords:
the fundamental issues of lexical semantics Historical-Philological Semantics Structuralist Semantics Generativist Semantics the integration model
文献标志码:
A
摘要:
Paradis(2013: 3347)提出词汇语义学理论必须回答的五个根本问题:1)语言意义的本质是什么?2)词语和意义之间的关系如何?3)词义是如何习得与存储的?4)词义是如何理解与传达的?5)词义的变化机制及其理据是什么?文章通过梳理历史语文语义学、结构主义语义学和生成主义语义学等三大经典词汇语义学流派的主要观点和不足之处,论述它们之间以及它们与其他流派之间的关系,试图对上述五个根本问题作出回答。研究发现,历史语文语义学持原子主义观,主要关注词义变化的历时因素、语境因素和心理因素,注重对词义变化机制进行精细分类,仅对问题1)、4)和5)作出了回答;结构主义语义学持共时观和系统观,关注词语之间的关系,认为词义的本质在于语言单位之间的关系,即其理论主线是对关系的描述,本质是典型的关系语义,因而它仅对问题1)和2)作出了回答;而生成主义语义学持心智主义意义观,主张在共时语境中描写形式化语义,主要对问题1)、2)和4)作出了回答,对问题3)有所提及,但未深入其中,对问题5)仅涉及共时、语境的词义变化,不涉及历时的词义变化。上述三大经典词汇语义学流派都依据自身的理论框架对Paradis的五个根本问题作出了部分回答,且词汇语义学各个流派之间存在着某种内在逻辑关系,在理论立场、研究方法层面构成一种多重承继、发展和互补关系。因而,在今后的发展中,不同的流派应该彼此相互借鉴,共同构建语义研究融合模型。文章对语言教学、词典编纂和自然语言信息处理等有一定的参考价值。
Abstract:
Five fundamental issues are of central significance to any theory of lexical semantics that make claims to be a coherent framework within which lexical meanings can be described and explained. The issues are: 1) What is the nature of meaning in language? 2) What is the relation between words and their meanings? 3) How are meanings of words learned and stored? 4) How are meanings of words communicated and understood by language users? 5) How and why do meanings of words change? (Paradis 2013: 3347). Thus, by combing the main ideas, deficiencies of classic schools in lexical semantics like Historical-Philological Semantics, Structuralist Semantics and Generativist Semantics, this thesis not only illustrates relations of classic schools and their relations with other schools, but also tries to answer the five fundamental issues. Research shows that all the above three classic schools offer parts of the answers to Paradis’ five fundamental issues. Specifically speaking, Historical-Philological Semantics adopts an atomistic perspective, with a focus on diachronic, contextual and psychological elements of lexical meaning changing, as well as their exhaustive classifications, thus it only offers partial answers to the issues of 1), 4) and 5); Structuralist Semantics adopts a synchronic and systematic perspective, with a focus on the relation of lexicon, and it believes that the nature of meaning in language is the relations between linguistic units, which forms a typical relational semantics, thus it merely answers the issues of 1) and 2); Generativist Semantics adopts a mentalistic perspective, and concentrates more on the formulation of meaning in the synchronic contexts, thus it partly answers the issues of 1), 2) and 4), touching the issue of 3), and as to the issue of 5), it focuses on the semantic changes in the synchronic and contextual ways instead of diachronic ones. Therefore, they all partly study the meaning of a lexicon in their own theoretical frameworks, and there is a certain internal logic relation among them, which forms a multi-inheritance, developmental and complementary relationship in terms of theoretical frameworks and research methodologies. The inspiration of the thesis might be that every school of lexical semantics has studied some aspects of lexicon, whose shortages make it necessary for other schools to perfect their developments in the future. Different schools in lexical semantics should learn from each other and develop the integration models of semantics research. It is believed that the thesis is conducive to language teaching, dictionary compilation and Natural Language Processing.
更新日期/Last Update: 2020-07-01